What is family planning?
The accessibility of family planning services enables people to have the number of children they desire and the desired birth spacing, which improves the health of newborns, children, women, and families. When deciding how many children to have—or whether to have none at all—a woman may also take into account the ages at which she wants to have them. These issues are influenced by outside variables like a person’s marital status, job goals, financial situation, and any disability that may limit their capacity to conceive and raise children. If one is sexually active, family planning may entail using contraception and other methods to regulate when children are born.
Why people opt for family planning
The following are a couple of reasons why families opt for family planning.
Average-earning parents are unable to raise a high number of kids without depriving them of many basic necessities such as education, healthcare, clothing, and food.
2. Psychological-Emotional security
Psychological or emotional security is as vital for a child as their material needs. Some youngsters in large households may not receive the affection and understanding that are necessary for their eventual development into stable adults.
3. Population control
The rate of production of food, clothing, educational and medical facilities, etc., in developing countries, cannot keep up with a rapidly increasing population, depriving citizens of basic necessities. Since economic growth is sluggish in Pakistan, population growth must be controlled in order to raise living standards.
Read more: Exercise as a Remedy for Hypertension
4. Medical reasons
The health of the mother is harmed by having children repeatedly. In our nation, great multipara deaths outnumber primigravida deaths. Large families in the lowest income bracket also have high rates of infant and perinatal mortality. In the mother’s best interest, some medical conditions, such as tuberculosis, heart disease, etc., call for restrictions on family size.
Women now have a role to play in the health of the nation and community. A smaller family enables the mother to give her home and kids more of her attention. It is crucial for women to contribute to the growth of their country, especially in emerging economies.
Methods of family planning
Following are some popular and easily accessible methods of family planning.
1. Condom or Rubber Sheath
Before having sex, the male wears this rubber device, which is akin to a finger stall. The woman uses a vaginal tablet (Volpar) or a jelly prior to coitus to ensure maximum safety. In the event that the condom fails to prevent the intrusion of sperm, the jelly or pill in the vagina kills the sperm.
It is advised to use the condom and jelly before beginning sexual activity because if not, the approach would fail.
2. Dutch Cap or Diaphragm
This is a rubber-covered ring. The ring is fitted into the vaginal wall surrounding the cervix and inserted into the vagina such that the diaphragm covers the cervix. Sperm cannot enter the uterus because of the diaphragm. A medical professional inserts the proper size, and the woman learns how to put it in and take it out. For proper use, a doctor must perform additional testing. Before sexual contact, spermicidal jelly is applied to the diaphragm for added safety. After eight hours, it is taken out, cleaned with soap and water, dried, powdered, and put in a tin box. The patient must cooperate in order for the diaphragm to be properly applied, inserted, and removed.
3. Rhythm Method
In this, the woman abstains from sexual activity seven days prior to and five days following ovulation. Normally, ovulation happens 14 days before the start of the following menstruation. The procedure is not practical for the typical lady in our nation because it requires knowledge of menstrual and ovulation dates. If periods are irregular, the approach is ineffective. The rise in temperature that occurs during ovulation can be used to identify ovulation.
4. Oral contraceptives
These pills prevent ovulation during the cycle in which they are used because they contain a combination of estrogen and progesterone. Twenty pills in total are taken during one menstrual cycle. Beginning at the fifth night after the start of menstruation and continuing every day for 20 nights, one tablet is taken at bedtime. If a dose is missed at night, the next morning’s dose is taken together with the regular tablet. The course must be finished, even if coitus only happens once over the cycle. Menstruation begins 4 to 5 days after the last medication is taken.
Patients are discouraged from using it because of nausea, breast soreness, headaches, and breakthrough bleeding, although most adverse effects go away after taking the pills for more than three months. This is the most effective way of preventing conception, but one course of tablets costs so much each month that it puts this approach to preventing pregnancy far beyond the reach of the majority of people in our country. Ovulen, Anovlar, Lyndiol, Enavid, and other medications are frequently found on the market. Recently, less expensive low dosage preparations, such as Miniovlar, have been available.
5. Intra-uterine Device
In clinics for family planning, a physician examines the patient before inserting a sterile plastic coil into the uterus. The coil is linked to a thread that extends into the vagina from the cervix. Because family planning is important, the coil is kept in place for a long time and can be taken out if pregnancy is desired. The coil’s existence stops the ovum from being released into the uterus.
6. Sterilization of the Female
Parents who have failed at a family planning or who have a large family may be given advice on this surgical treatment. A doctor performs the procedure in a hospital. Even though this is an abdominal operation, if done one or two days after delivery, this becomes a simple process. Small abdominal incisions are made while under anesthesia, and the fallopian tubes are split and ligatured with mersilk. On the fifth day, the patient is released and the clips or skin sutures are removed. She is not constrained in her movements, and the same safety precautions are taken during the puerperium as with a typical birth.
7. Sterilization of men
All hospitals use a local anesthetic to do this little surgery. The vasa deferens is split and bound by the groin incision. After the patient receives a dressing and is permitted to go home, he returns five days later to have the skin sutures removed. The procedure has no negative effects on a man’s virility.