What are kidney stones?
In the kidneys, crystal aggregations take place. Numerous kidney stones grow and are eliminated through the urine stream regularly without causing any symptoms. Urinary blockage can be caused by stones that reach a size of at least 2-3 mm before passing through the ureter.
Etiology of kidney stones
Kidney stones can be caused by common metabolic conditions such as renal tubular acidosis, modularly spongy kidney, Dent’s disease, and hyperparathyroidism.
Types of Kidney Stones
The four main types of stones that form in the kidneys (1 to 2%) are cystine stones, calcium (75 to 85%), struvite (2 to 15%), and uric acid (6 to 10%).
The geographic location of the living thing and the population under study affects the distribution and frequency of these stones.
Kidney stones, which make up about 1% of all cases and are rarely caused by long-term drug usage.
Stones made of calcium oxalate, calcium urate, or calcium phosphate are associated with hypercalciuria, which is brought on by hyperparathyroidism. In patients with the condition, increased calcium absorption from the stomach causes renal calcium or phosphate leak, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, and hypomagnesuria.
Struvite is composed of partial or complete staghorn calculi, which are magnesium ammonium phosphate stones that grow to fill the collecting system. This stage is brought on by persistent urinary tract infections brought on by gram-negative urea-splitting rods such as Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella species.
Uric acid stones
The two conditions that are frequently present in gout patients—high purine consumption medications and high cell turnover (such as malignancy)—are the most frequent causes of uric acid stones. The most prevalent environment for the formation of uric acid stones is slightly acidic urine (pH 5.5). They are observable in nature and typically radiolucent on X-ray film.
Cystinuria, a genetic intrinsic metabolic disorder in which cystine re-absorption in the renal tubule is compromised, leads to the formation of cystine stones. These stones could be hard to see on X-rays because of the high sulfur content. In cases of drug-induced stones, some medications may help cause renal stones.
Some medications can be used to treat one ailment while also contributing to the development of renal stones. The pharmaceuticals in question are indinavir, atazanavir, guaifenesin, triamterene, silicate (antacids), and sulfa drugs. These exceedingly odd stones can commonly be observed on X-rays (radiolucent)
Signs & Symptoms of kidney stones
Without knowing whether the person had kidney stones or not, it was unable to identify any symptoms. The stone was transported to the bladder by the ureters after passing through the kidney. Hydronephrosis, a condition in which some stones remain in the ureters and obstruct urine flow out of the kidneys, results from this. This caused a great deal of pain in the kidneys.
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Strong, wavy pain in the back and its full side that can radiate to the lower abdomen or the vaginal region is indicative of a kidney stone.
Hematuria, which results from minor injury to the kidney, ureter, or urethra’s interior, is the presence of blood in the urine. Pyuria is the medical term for pus in the urine. Burning while peeing is known as dysuria. Oliguria is a condition when there is less urine production. The colon and the vomiting center have an embryological connection that results in nausea and vomiting. Hydronephrosis Following renal azotemia, a kidney stone blocks the ureter.
Risk of Factors of kidney stones
The production of kidney stones is significantly influenced by dietary factors. The surroundings, body weight, DNA, and the amount of fluid absorbed are additional elements that can contribute to the formation of stones. The following are some elements that may increase your risk of kidney stones:
- The body’s dehydration
- Kidney stones can be passed down through the generations. Cystinuria is a hereditary condition that raises the chance of cystine stones.
- Adding additional proteins, lipids, sodium, and sugar to your diet may raise your risk of kidney stones.
- In comparison to other disorders, people withu kidney infections (particularly women) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are more likely to develop struvite stones.
- Kidney stones arise as a result of metabolic syndrome.
- Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones
Diagnosis of kidney stones
Blood tests: Detect an excessive amount of calcium or uric acid in the blood. The findings of a blood test can help doctors monitor the health of the kidneys and may prompt them to look for other medical issues
If your kidneys are excreting too many stone-forming minerals or not enough stone-preventing compounds, a 24-hour urine collection test can show this. The doctor might advise collecting at least two urine samples over two days for this test.
It could show whether kidney stones are present in the urine system. High-speed or dual-energy computed tomography (CT), which can detect even minute stones, has taken the place of simple abdominal X-rays, which can overlook microscopic kidney stones. A non-invasive alternative to imaging is ultrasonography, which involves injecting a dye into an arm vein and taking X-rays (intravenous pyelogram) or CT images (CT urogram) as the dye moves through the kidneys and bladder.
Herbal treatments of kidney stones
Herbs and herbal remedies can be used to cure kidney stones. Due to their scientifically proven advantages including immunomodulation, adaptogenic, and antimutagenicity, these drugs have aroused people’s curiosity. Furthermore, people are turning back to natural medicines as a result of the abuse of synthetic drugs, which increases the likelihood of negative drug reactions.
Herbal Remedies for Kidney Stones
Celosia argental (Viratarvadigana)
The Indian medical system is regarded as being special for the treatment of urinary stones. This plant’s aqueous decoction is used to dissolve and expel stones. Didymocarpus pedicellata, popularly known as Patharphodi or Shilapushp, is used to cure kidney and bladder stones.
Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum)
The seeds of this plant are widely used to cure and prevent kidney stones in northern Africa. In an animal study, fenugreek seed was found to significantly reduce kidney calcification and help prevent kidney stones.
Shatavari root (Asparagus racehorses)
This essential Ayurvedic Ramayana (rejuvenating therapy) was found to reduce the formation of calcium oxalate stones in test animals.
Chancapiedra/Stonebreaker (Phyllanthus niruri)
A tropical herb known as the Chanca stone buster has a long history of use in kidney stone prevention and passage. Several in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to aid in the prevention of kidney stones.
This plant is frequently consumed as food and medicine and possesses lithotripter, diuretic, and antispasmodic qualities. The volume of crystals produced in calcium oxalate repulsive solutions as well as the nucleation and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals in vitro were both decreased by the crude aqueous metabolic extract of O. vulgare’s aerial part.
Barberry root bark (Berberis vulgaris)
It has been shown that barberry reduces kidney damage brought on by oxidative stress by preventing calcium oxalate crystallization. The water extract was the most effective method of preparation.
Black cumin seed (Nigella sativa)
Utilizing this plant considerably reduced the risk of experimentally generated calcium oxalate stone formation in test animals during animal experiments.
Punarnava herb (Boerhaavia diffusa)
This common Indian herb is used to help remove preventing kidney stones and restoring the kidneys. In an in vitro experiment, it prevented the formation of struvite stones; It’s unclear whether it can do it in vivo.
Varuna bark (Crataeva nurvala)
When used daily, this Ayurvedic herb decreased kidney stone development and urine calcium excretion. When mixed with banana stem, this Ayurvedic herb is used to treat and prevent kidney stones (Muse paradisiacal). The authors of a recent human trial claim that this formula helped dissolve renal calculi, expedited their passage, and decreased pain.
Evening primrose seed oil (Oenothera biennis)
Regular EPO delivery (1,000 mg/day) in a human study increased urine citrate levels while reducing urinary oxalate, calcium, and the Tiselius risk index, which is a risk factor for kidney stone development.
Rupturewort herb (Herniariahirsuta)
This herb prevented the accumulation of CAOx crystals in the kidneys of test animals in animal experiments
In Thai traditional medicine, hibiscus sabdariffa is used to prevent and treat kidney stones. A clinical study on 18 people found that drinking a cup of tea made from 1.5 g of dry H. sabdariffa twice daily for 15 days had a uricosuric effect and significantly increased uric acid excretion and renal clearance by urine.
The majority of people in the world today are unable to access modern health care facilities for the treatment of urinary stones due to socioeconomic constraints. As a result, people continue to turn to readily available herbal remedies in their area to cure urinary stone issues. Recent studies have supported some of these ancient antiurolithiatic claims, but many of these plants and herbal remedies are not yet recognized as effective treatments for the prevention and maintenance of urinary stones.
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More clinical research is therefore required to validate the traditional antiurolithiatic claims made by these plants and herbal combinations, in addition to the chemical characterization of antiurolithiatic herbs.