Psoriasis: Its Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

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An autoimmune disorder called psoriasis results in a fast accumulation of skin cells. Scaling is a result of this cell accumulation on the surface of your skin.

Around the scales, inflammation and redness are very typical. Typical psoriatic scales appear as thick, red patches and are whitish-silver. However, they might also show up more as purplish, dark brown with grey scales on darker skin tones. These patches occasionally fracture and bleed.

An accelerated process of skin creation leads to psoriasis. Skin cells typically develop deep within your skin before slowly rising to the surface. They eventually come off. A skin cell typically has a life span of one month.

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Major areas affected by Psoriasis

Scales commonly form on joints like the elbows and knees. But they could appear anywhere on your body, like the:

  • Limbs 
  • Feet
  • Neck
  • Scalp 
  • Face

Types of psoriasis

Major types of psoriasis are given below:

Erythrodermic psoriasis

According to the National Psoriasis Foundation, erythrodermic psoriasis is a severe and extremely uncommon form of psoriasis. Large portions of your body are frequently covered at once by this form. The skin almost has a scorched appearance. When scales form, they frequently fall off in broadsheets or pieces. With this type of psoriasis, you could experience fever or become seriously unwell. You must schedule a consultation with a healthcare provider as away because this type might be fatal.

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Inverse psoriasis

Bright, glossy, inflammatory skin patches are a symptom of inverse psoriasis. Inverse psoriasis manifests as patches around skin folds in the genitalia, under the breasts, in the groin, or under the armpits.

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Pustular psoriasis

Adults are more likely to develop pustular psoriasis. Depending on skin tone, it results in large regions of red or violet inflamed skin as well as white, pus-filled blisters. On darker skin tones, it might have a more vivid violet hue. Pustular psoriasis commonly affects the hands or feet, although it can also affect larger parts of the body.

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Guttate psoriasis

Children frequently get guttate psoriasis. Small pink or violet patches are produced by this kind of psoriasis. Your torso, arms, and legs are where guttate psoriasis most frequently appears. Rarely are these lesions elevated or thick like plaque psoriasis.

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Common symptoms of Psoriasis

The most common symptoms of plaque psoriasis include:

  • On light skin, elevated and inflammatory areas of skin seem red. But on dark skin, they appear brown or purple.
  • Red areas have whitish-silver scales or plaques, whereas purple and brown patches have grey scales.
  • Thick, pitted nails, dry skin that may crack and bleed, pain surrounding spots, and itching and burning feelings there.
  • Throbbing, sore joints

Causes of Psoriasis

The following are the causes of psoriasis:

Immune system

It is an autoimmune disease. White blood cells called T cells wrongly attack your skin cells in the case of psoriasis.  White blood cells are often used by the body to combat and eliminate invasive microorganisms and mount an infection defense. The synthesis of skin cells ramps up as a result of this misguided immunological response. New skin cells grow too quickly due to accelerated skin cell synthesis. They are forced to the top of the skin, where they accumulate.  

Genetics

Some individuals inherit genes that increase their risk of getting psoriasis. You are more vulnerable if a member of your close family has a skin problem.

Diagnosis of psoriasis

It can be diagnosed by the following two methods:

Bodily examination

Most medical professionals can diagnose a patient with just a quick physical. Psoriasis symptoms are frequently obvious and simple to distinguish from those of other illnesses that could produce comparable symptoms.Make sure to show your doctor any areas of concern during this examination. Additionally, tell your doctor if any members of your family suffer from the ailment.

Biopsy

Your doctor might take a tiny sample of your skin if your symptoms are unclear or if they want to confirm a probable diagnosis. It’s called a biopsy.

Treatments of psoriasis

Following are the treatments psoriasis:

Topical treatments

For mild to moderate psoriasis, creams and ointments administered directly to the skin can be beneficial.

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Treatments for psoriasis on the skin include:

  • Skin-applied corticosteroids
  • Cream retinoids
  • Vitamin D analogues, salicylic acid, and anthralin.

Systemic medications

Oral or injectable drugs may be required for those with moderate to severe psoriasis or those who have not responded well to other methods of treatment. Since many of these medications have serious adverse effects, doctors typically only prescribe them for brief periods.

These medicines consist of oral retinoids with methotrexate and cyclosporine (Sandimmune) biologics.

Light therapy

UV or natural light is used in this psoriasis treatment. The excessively active white blood cells that are attacking healthy skin cells and accelerating cell proliferation are killed by sunlight. To lessen the signs and symptoms of mild to moderate psoriasis, both UVA and UVB light may be useful.

The majority of patients with mild to moderate psoriasis will benefit from a combination of therapies. To lessen symptoms, this therapy style employs multiple treatment modalities. Some people might receive the same care for the entirety of their life. Others might need to occasionally switch therapies if their skin stops responding to the current therapy.


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